|1. Closed world consisting of a limited number of fixed forms
(species) and having fixed boundaries. The infinite is the indefinite
and the incomprehensible. It represents chaos and irrationality.
||1. Open world varying indefinitely within and having no fixed
boundaries (infinite). Infinite in space and time. Infinity as indefinite
is opportunity, rather than deficiency. Unbounded progress is possible.
|2. Changes occur within fixed and predetermined limits (repetition
of the same forms -- acorn to oak over and over again).
||2. Changes not restricted to predetermined limits.
|3. Fixed and unmoving superior to the changing and moving. Science
is grasp of fixed and unchanging species. Grasping what is constant
||3. Change rather than fixity is a measure of reality. Change is
omnipresent. Science grasps laws of motion rather than unchanging
essences or species. Law as correlation of changes. Grasping what
is constant in function or operation.
|4. Limited number of forms or classes arranged hierarchically
from lower to higher. Importance of ranks. There are castes in nature.
The universe is an aristocracy, where each individual stays within
its class. Corresponds to feudal ranking of classes and fixed positions
from ruler to peasant. Universal law as governing from authority
||4. The same laws of nature hold everywhere. There is a homogeneity
rather than a hierarchy of material and process everywhere in nature.
There is a democracy of individual facts equal in rank as opposed
to the feudal system of an ordered gradation of general classes
of unequal rank.
|5. Earth is the center and most material (closer to matter); stars
are at the circumference and closer to form. Things of earth fluctuating
and less rational. Things above permanent and more rational. Matter
||5. The earth is not the center of the universe; neither superior
nor inferior in rank to sun, moon, and stars. Earthly material is
best known; the far away must be under- stood in terms of the earthly
and the close at hand.
|6. Contemplation and admiration of the perfection of nature superior
to practical handling of material; esthetic enjoyment of form superior
to practice and techne. Mechanical arts are base because they deal
with matter (material conditions) rather than form. Alteration of
nature is prescribed by stereotypical results.
||6. Interest shifted from aesthetic to the practical, from beholding
of nature as a harmonious and complete to transforming nature as
inharmonious and incomplete. The way natural processes turn out
is not fixed in advance, but can be redirected in new ways by human
intervention. Anything can happen. Experiment as handling of nature
is not divorced from understanding of nature.
|7. Circular movement of the heavens and self-involved revolution
of reason on its own axis is superior to mere quantitative change
||7. Straight-line progress and intelligence that corrects itself
in the face of new discoveries is superior to circular contemplation
of the "over and over again."
|8. Only changes from one fixed form to another can be understood.
Development applies only to individuals within a species, not to
species themselves. Potentiality means not possibility of novelty;
but predictable movement toward pre-existing ends.
|8. Change and development is not confined to fixed results. Potentiality
has many directions, is wide open. Conditions are plastic, rather
than restricted. Novelty is possible. Importance of conditions in
relation to results, means in relation to ends.
|9. Final and formal causes are supreme, because these have to
do with rest and permanence. The final is the finished, the complete.
||9. No fixed ends (final causes) in nature. No fixed and unchanging
forms in nature
|10. Efficient causes are secondary, because these have to do with
change, of moving an incomplete being towards its completed form.
Outcomes are predetermined.
||10. Emphasis upon manipulation of conditions, importance of efficient
causes. Outcomes are not determined in advance; efficient causes
can redirect natural processes.
|11. The defining characteristic of a thing is its nature, that
is, what about it does not change.
||11. The defining characteristic of a thing is its function, its
organic relation and interrelation. A thing is described in terms
of a dynamic and changing correlation, rather than a static and
|12. Nature subject to metaphysical and theological purpose.
||12. Nature subject to human purpose.
|13. Moral and social life confined to fixed ends and hierarchical
||13. Moral and social life still dominated by fixed ends and hierarchical
thinking. Scientific and experimental method, which alters ends
and uses appropriate conditions, has not been applied to human and
social sciences. Old wine in new bottles.